Liner (Innenfutter or Innenausstattung 31)


The German helmet has a sophisticated inside liner. It is designed to make it possible to wear a heavy combat helmet with some comfort. To accomplish this the liner consists of two metal bands, these bands are connected to each other with blade springs. The very early bands are made from aluminum, due to metal fatigue they tend to break where the leather chin strap was connected. Therefor the liner band was reinforced with an extra strip aluminum. From 1940 most liner bands were made of steel (zinc plated). Beside the change into steel also the form of the D-ring (to attach the chin strap) changed. Early springs are painted in a grey-green color. Later springs are zinc plated. Imitation (reproduction) liners do often have the typical modern blue tempered steel strapping (mend for packaging systems).

replica-liner (1 van 3) Reproduction liners: modern blade springs replica-liner (2 van 3) Reproduction liners: messing rivets replica-liner (2 van 3) Reproduction liners: artificial aging

The leather has eight (or nine for large sizes) fingers. Early liners do have thicker leather than late war examples. The liners were made of sheep, goat, and pigskin but not cow hide.  Each fingers has five holes in it, but there are no sweat holes in the forehead. The leather was not colored, but turned often dark when used. The leather is connected to the liner with aluminum or (rare) zinc rivets.

Between the leather part and the metal band there is a grey/green colored piece of felt.

The basic model changed or developed into three slightly different models

  • M1931 – First Pattern Aluminum

  • M1931 – First Pattern Aluminum (reinforced)

  • M1931 – Second Pattern Steel / Zinc

Remarkable dates

1929 Designed and patented Schuberth-Werk Braunschweig, 2000 pieces tested in the field for one and a half year
1931 Initial order for 300.000 pieces (to be used for WW1 models M16, M17 and M18)
1931 – 1934 Aluminum liner band was marked “1931” (year of approval)
14 November 1934 Introduction improved liner system, intended to replace the M1927 type (and all other systems)
1935 Aluminum liner band was marked with production year
1937 Several Manufacturers were contracted to produce the liner (start large-scale production of the M1935)
20 January 1938 Design change introducing of aluminum reinforcing plate (riveted to the sides of the outer band)
1940 Introduction zinc-plated steel and change of chinstrap ‘D’-rings (from square to round corners)

Into the liners the following markings can be found

german-helmet-liner-markings-1 german-helmet-liner-markings-2
Size shell helmet
nA – neues Art (new style)
Size head
Production year


The firms that produced the liners

Marking Firm Location



B&C Berlin Biedermann und Czarnikow Berlin 0/0256/0038
B&C Litzmannstadt Biedermann und Czarnikow Litzmannstadt 0/1035/0293 Today: Łódź, Poland
Berlin Kofferfabrik INH Max Densow Berlin until 1938
Metallwarenfabrik F.W.M. F.W. Müller Jr Berlin 0/0250/0622
Karl Heisler Berlin 0/0250/0201
Metall-Lederverarbeitung WZ Metall-Lederverarbeitung Werner Zahn Berlin-Charlottenburg 0/0251/0111 until 1943 aluminum
DRP Schuberth-Werk (GmbH, A-G or K-G) Braunschweig 0/0471/0048 Schuberth patented the liner system. D.R.P. means Deutsches Reichspatent

Recrutes are getting their helmets.
Recruits get their helmets (1944)


Size (Kopfweite)
Shell size
  Size (Kopfweite)
Shell size
52-53 cm
60 cm
Extra small 58-59 cm
66 cm
54-55 cm
62 cm
Small 60-61 cm
68 cm
Extra large
56-57 cm
64 cm
Medium 62-63 cm
70 cm
XX Large